Facial transplantation: from the early trials to ethical and clinical guidelines


Facial transplantation is a complex technique that involves a number of risks. However, although it is not a lifesaving transplant, for individuals in dramatic conditions due to severe facial disfigurements, it constitutes the only possibility of recovering an acceptable quality of life. For this reason, even from an ethical point of view, it is considered an important therapeutic resource, provided it is conducted in rigorously-controlled conditions.


Ethics; Organ transplantation; Risk

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