Monographic Section

Sex-related biomarkers in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders


Despite considerable advances in the treatment of human inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurological disorders, they remain the leading cause of death in developed countries. From a clinical perspective, an active area of investigation focuses on the identification of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, because preventing events in those at risk of chronic inflammatory disease is likely to have a substantial impact on the overall public-health burden. The sex difference has not been considered previously as important in the evaluation of biomarkers of human diseases, twithstanding it is now ascertained that the severity of these disorders is correlated with sex hormones which modulate the inflammatory response. The aim of the present brief review is to report and comment the state of art regarding the sex-related biomarkers in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, focusing on those compounds showing potential prognosticand diagnostic values, and/or acting as indicators of the therapeutic treatment efficacy.


sex differences; biomarkers; cardiovascular disease; neurodegenerative; disease; oxidative stress

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