Monographic Section

Why the study of the effects of biological sex is important


Biological sex significantly affects the presentation, outcome of treatment and progression of disease. However, the role of sex has yet underestimated consequences for physiology and pathology. We put forward that a better understanding of the effects of sex in pathophysiology and the underlying mechanisms is necessary. This may facilitate the identification of targets that respond to specific therapies, thereby contributing towards a more appropriate and individualised medical care for both men and women.


biological sex; pathophysiology; preclinical and clinical research; treatment

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